Teardrop attacks use a security vulnerability in the TCP/IP implementation typical of older operating systems. They could threaten Windows 3.1x, Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems, as well as older Linux operating systems. In the new operating systems, this error does not exist.
This type of attack was abused by the fact that some operating systems is unable to respond correctly to a badly fragmented IP packet. If the IP packet is too large, the system divides it. This, IP packets are divided into smaller portions along the way, which once again folds into their original form and size on the target computer. Each of these fragments contains information about which part of the packet it carries.
The principle of the attack is that the attacker deliberately divides some IP packets into several parts so that they overlap. In normal operation, the packets are linked to each other, but in this case the target machine is unable to process them because it does not count on such a situation and eventually collapses.